What are the types of argument?

Answered by Antonio Sutton

There are several types of arguments that can be used to persuade or convince others. These include causal arguments, rebuttal arguments, proposal arguments, evaluation arguments, narrative arguments, Toulmin arguments, Rogerian arguments, and classical Western arguments. Each type serves a different purpose and employs different strategies to make a point.

1. Causal argument: A causal argument aims to show that one thing has caused another. It establishes a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more variables. For example, one might argue that increased pollution levels have caused a rise in respiratory diseases.

2. Rebuttal argument: A rebuttal argument is used to counter or challenge another argument. It seeks to disprove or discredit opposing viewpoints. This type of argument involves anticipating counterarguments and providing evidence or reasoning to refute them.

3. Proposal argument: A proposal argument puts forward a specific solution or course of action to address a problem or issue. It aims to persuade others to adopt a particular plan or policy. For instance, one might argue for the implementation of stricter gun control laws to reduce violence.

4. Evaluation argument: An evaluation argument involves assessing the quality, value, or effectiveness of something. It may involve analyzing a work of literature, a movie, a policy, or any other subject of evaluation. The argument presents a judgment and supports it with evidence and reasoning.

5. Narrative argument: A narrative argument uses storytelling techniques to make a point or persuade others. It often involves personal experiences or anecdotes to illustrate a larger argument. This type of argument can be particularly effective in engaging emotions and creating a connection with the audience.

6. Toulmin argument: The Toulmin argument is a model of argumentation that emphasizes the importance of evidence and reasoning. It consists of a claim, grounds (evidence), warrant (reasoning), backing (additional support), qualifier (limitations or conditions), and rebuttal (addressing counterarguments). The Toulmin model provides a structured approach to constructing persuasive arguments.

7. Rogerian argument: The Rogerian argument aims to find common ground and reach a compromise between conflicting viewpoints. It seeks to understand and respect opposing perspectives before presenting a middle ground solution or agreement. This type of argument promotes dialogue and collaboration rather than confrontation.

8. Classical Western argument: The classical Western argument follows a traditional approach to persuasion. It typically includes an introduction (exordium), presentation of the argument (narratio), confirmation (proving the argument), refutation (addressing counterarguments), and conclusion (peroratio). This type of argumentation is often used in academic and formal settings.

Understanding the different types of arguments can help individuals effectively present their ideas and persuade others. Whether it is establishing a causal relationship, countering opposing viewpoints, proposing a solution, evaluating a subject, using storytelling techniques, employing a structured model, seeking compromise, or following a classical approach, each type serves a unique purpose in the art of persuasion.