# What affects specific gravity?

Specific gravity is affected by several factors, including temperature and pressure. These two variables can significantly influence the density of a substance, which in turn affects its specific gravity. Let’s explore these factors in more detail.

1. Temperature:
Temperature plays a crucial role in determining the specific gravity of a substance. As the temperature increases, the molecules within a substance gain kinetic energy and move more rapidly. This increased molecular motion leads to a decrease in the density of the substance, resulting in a lower specific gravity.

For example, let’s consider water. As the temperature of water increases, the average distance between water molecules expands, leading to a decrease in density. Consequently, the specific gravity of water decreases with increasing temperature. It is important to note that different substances may have varying temperature-dependent effects on specific gravity.

2. Pressure:
Pressure also affects the specific gravity of a substance. When the pressure on a substance increases, the molecules within it are compressed, causing the substance to become denser. This increase in density leads to a higher specific gravity.

To illustrate this, let’s take the example of gases. When a gas is subjected to higher pressure, its molecules are forced closer together, resulting in a higher density and specific gravity. Conversely, reducing the pressure on a gas causes its molecules to spread out, thus decreasing its density and specific gravity.

3. Comparison with a reference:
To accurately determine the specific gravity of a substance, it is essential to compare it with a reference substance under the same temperature and pressure conditions. This comparison allows for a reliable assessment of the relative density of the substance.

For instance, if we want to determine the specific gravity of a liquid, we would typically compare it to the specific gravity of water at the same temperature and pressure. This reference point helps to account for the variations caused by temperature and pressure and provides a standardized measure for specific gravity.

4. Correction to standard reference conditions:
In cases where the temperature and pressure of the reference and sample substances differ, it becomes necessary to correct the specific gravity to a standard reference temperature and pressure. This correction is crucial for ensuring accurate and comparable measurements across different conditions.

In practice, various organizations and industries have established standard reference conditions for specific gravity measurements. These standard conditions allow for consistent and reliable comparisons of specific gravity values obtained from different sources.

Specific gravity is influenced by temperature, pressure, the reference substance, and the standard reference conditions. Temperature and pressure affect the density of a substance, which, in turn, determines its specific gravity. To obtain accurate measurements, it is important to compare substances at the same temperature and pressure or correct them to a standard reference condition.